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<p>A first embodiment of the invention will now be described with respect to FIG. Implementation of an application e. In one aspect of the invention, the two parts of the application utilize an application protocol to communicate over a control channel The application part that resides in the intelligent terminal is defined and implemented with the following application building components: State and State Tables ; Primitives ; Control Messages to the Terminal ; Messages from the Terminal ; and Terminal Registers These components will now be described in greater detail.</p>
<p>The terminal will alwaus be in a defined state when running the application. A state is defined by a state table , specifying information displayed to the user , any time supervision of the state, and action to take as a result of a stimulus from the user In one aspect of the invention, the transition from one state to another may be handled by a primitive A state table defines the state concerning:.</p>
<p>The information that will be presented to the user e. Any menu that will be presented to the user, including a definition of the options that are available to the user. For every relevant user action e. These primitives may be called directly from the code e. A primitive may have none, one or several parameters. Control Messages to the Terminal A set of control messages are defined for transmission from the SN to the intelligent terminal The control messages may cause data to be stored in a terminal register , or may alternatively call a primitive A control message that orders a change of state is a call to a primitive.</p>
<p>The intelligent terminal may send one or more messages to the SN from a called primitive There may be some specialized messages, each having a unique meaning. There may also be a generic message that reports an event to the SN The event reporting message may include parameters indicating the current state and the event e.</p>
<p>The intelligent terminal should leave the decisino of appropriate measure to the SN when sending such a message. The terminal registers should contain data that is specific to the intelligent terminal , such as terminal identity, or data that is personal to the user or temporary.</p>
<p>The user or the SN should be responsible for updating terminal registers Exemplary interactions between a user, an intelligent terminal and a SN will now be described with reference to the flow chart depicted in FIGS.</p>
<p>It is assumed, in this example, that the intelligent terminal is presently in state SI step At step , the intelligent terminal detects that the user has pressed an input key, designated key k. In response, the primitive corresponding to key k in state SI is identified and called step The event i. If it is not “no” path out of decision block , then processing continues at decision block. If it is a reportable event, “yes” path out of decision block , then the called primitive reports the event to the SN step , and the intelligent terminal waits for a response step The SN detects receipt of the event report step and responds by analyzing the event step The analysis determines which primitive the intelligent terminal should next execute, and the SN orders a call to this primitive step , by means of the application protocol that is used on the control channel The intelligent terminal receives the communication from the SN step , and calls the primitive i.</p>
<p>Execution continues to decision block Either as a result of execution of the primitive corresponding to key K in state SI “no” path out of decision block or alternatively as a result of execution of the primitive ordered by the SN step , the intelligent terminal may or may not be required to change state decision block If no change of state is required “no” path out of decision block , then a determination is made regarding whether new information needs to be presented to the user decision block If so, then the new information is presented to the user step , and the terminal remains in state SI step Otherwise “no” path out of decision block , no new information is presented to the user, and the terminal simply remains in state SI step Returning now to decision block , if it is determined that the terminal needs to change its state “yes” path out of decision block , then it is determined whether the state table for state S2 is presently stored in the intelligent terminal decision block In general, when an intelligent terminal is programmed for an application, the relevant state tables are downloaded into the intelligent terminal , either by connecting a data base directly to the intelligent terminal , or alternatively through the network from the SN If the application is changed, one or more state tables can be downloaded from the SN If the application needs more state tables than can be stored in the intelligent terminal , a missing state table can be downloaded immediately from the SN on demand when the intelligent terminal is going to enter that state.</p>
<p>This can be done both when the intelligent terminal is connected to the SN and when the intelligent terminal is “off-line”. Storage of the missing state table within the intelligent terminal can be temporary i. Alternatively, the missing state table can be put on a stack with a number of other state tables To make room for the new state table in the stack, a replacement strategy can be utilized in which the state table that has been unused for the longest time will be replaced.</p>
<p>It is also possible to initiate or change the application by downloading new primitives, either as object code or as calls to other primitives. Returning now to the flow chart of FIG. The intelligent terminal is now in state S2 step If, however, the state table for state S2 is not already stored in the intelligent terminal “no” path out of decision block , then a request for a state table corresponding to state S2 is sent from the intelligent terminal to the SN step The application protocol is used on the control channel in order to convey this request.</p>
<p>The SN detects receipt of the request for the state table step , locates the requested state table , and downloads the state table to the intelligent terminal step Again, the downloading of the state table utilizes the application protocol on the control channel The intelligent terminal receives the state table for state S2 step , and continues its processing at step , in which state S2 is entered.</p>
<p>Information regarding state S2 is then presented to the user step In the above examples, all of the activity was initiated in response to a user action e. Referring first to FIG. The SN detects the occurrence of an event that affects the intelligent terminal step The event may be, for example, an incoming call or a new message. In response, the SN analyzes the event step The intelligent terminal receives the communication from the SN step , and calls the primitive with any received parameters i.</p>
<p>In this example, it is assumed that the intelligent terminal is not required to change its state. Consequently, new information is presented to the user step For example the display portion of the intelligent terminal may be updated with new information. The terminal then remains in state S step An event that is first detected by the SN may also result in a change of state of the intelligent terminal Referring now to FIG.</p>
<p>In this example, it is assumed that the intelligent terminal change its state by enterring state S2 step Consequently, information of state S2 is presented to the user step For example the display portion of the intelligent terminal may be updated with new the information of stte S2.</p>
<p>The terminal then remains in the new state, state S2 step The examples presented above in FIGS. The autonomy of the intelligent terminal can range between the following extremes: – Operation of the intelligent terminal is completely autonomous: the intelligent terminal engages in an interactive dialogue with the user without any established control channel to the SN being utilized. It is also possible to let the SN take over the control completely and provide theinformation that will be presented to the user.</p>
<p>In this case, every state in the state table indicates that every event detected by the intelligent terminal must be reported to the SN Since the application is defined in the intelligent terminal by means of state tables and terminal registers , it is easy to download a complete application in the terminal through the network. The new application may be downloaded into an intelligent terminal that ony has a bootstrap program loaded. Alternatively, the new application may be downloaded into an intelligent terminal to replace another application.</p>
<p>The downloading of an application into an “empty” intelligent terminal will now be described with reference to the flow chart depicted in FIGS. It is assumed that the user has a predefined password and the telephone number for contacting the SN The SN has the application of the user, the terminal identity, and an expected password of the user. The intelligent terminal is initially turned off.</p>
<p>In response to the user turning on the terminal step , the intelligent terminal begins running a boot strap application program step , which should preferably be loaded in a nonvolatile memory. The boot strap program causes the following steps to take place: The intelligent terminal uses an output device on the intelligent terminal e.</p>
<p>The information may be, for example, a telephone number for establishing a connection to the SN The intelligent terminal then waits for a response from the user step In response to the user enterring the requested information step , the intelligent terminal calls the SN through the network step A data channel e.</p>
<p>The intelligent terminal then uses the established data channel to send an application request, accompanied by the terminal identity of this intelligent terminal step In order to get a secure connection, the “hand-shaking” and sending of terminal identity may be performed in a message dialogue with several coded messages.</p>
<p>After sending the application request, the intelligent terminal waits for a response. On the SN side of this process, the SS receives and answers the incoming call from the intelligent terminal step , and establishes its side of the data channel e. The SN then uses the received terminal identity to find the corresponding user data step Next, the SN sends a request for password to the intelligent terminal step In reponse to receipt of the request for password, the intelligent terminal prompts the user for the password step and waits for user action step The prompt to the user may either be stored in the intelligent terminal or sent from the SN in the request.</p>
<p>In response to the user entering the password step , the intelligent terminal sends the password to the SN step and waits for a response step In response to receipt of the password, the SN compares the received password with one that it has stored for this user step Assuming that the received password is the correct one, the SN sends an acknowledge message to the intelligent terminal step In response to receipt of the acknowledge message, the intelligent terminal prompts the user to wait for service initiation step , and then waits for downloading to begin step The prompt to the user may either be stored in the intelligent terminal or alternatively sent from the SN The SN then downloads the application data to the intelligent terminal step The intelligent terminal stores the received application data step , and then waits for further downloading step The SN then downloads the state tables to the intelligent terminal step The intelligent terminal stores the received state tables , and then waits for further downloading step The SN then sends the intelligent terminal an indication that the application has been downloaded step In response to the received indication, the intelligent terminal prompts the user that the application is ready step and then waits for action step The SN then orders the intelligent terminal to enter state 1 step , and waits for a service request step In response to receipt of the order, the intelligent terminal presents the information of state 1 to the user step , and then remains in state 1 step The downloading of new state tables and the generic service independent event-reporting message from the intelligent terminal makes it easy to introduce new applications without having to change the application protocol or reprogramming the intelligent terminal The arrangement described above is advantageous in that the location of the functionality is not fixed.</p>
<p>It can be easily moved between the SN and the intelligent terminal When a new function is introduced, it can initially be located in the SN , and then later be stored in the intelligent terminal as one or more new states The location of functionality can be optmized based on the following considerations:. Processor and storage capacity in the SN and in the intelligent terminal Transmission capacity of the control channel Amount of information that will be presented to the user.</p>
<p>Any requirement for performing parts of, or an entire, function in the intelligent terminal in a stand-alone mode without an established control channel to the SN The above-described arrangement is also advantageous in that it is easy to change the functionality of a system consisting of a SN and an intelligent terminal This may be done because:. The system is used in another application. Several users use the same intelligent terminal and have personal user interfaces of the same application.</p>
<p>Another embodiment of the invention will now be described. In this alternative embodiment, an application protocol above the USSD protocol is provided which makes it possible for an operator to implement more advanced services.</p>
<p>To facilitate understanding of the invention, this embodiment will be described in the context of a mobile communications system environment. However, it will be understood by those having ordinary skill in the art that the techniques described here are not restricted only to mobile communications sy terns, but instead are equally applicable to other types of communications systems.</p>
<p>In this embodiment, the service application logic resides in both a network node e. The protocol by which the application logic and the intelligent terminal communcate with one another is refered to herein as the “Intelligent Terminal Protocol” ITAP.</p>
<p>As mentioned above, communications between the SN and the intelligent terminal utilize a layered protocol, in which ITAP is a bearer-independent layer that is conveyed by means of a lower layer protocol, such as the USSD protocol according to GSM phase 2, or short message service SMS.</p>
<p>The IMS user communicates with a service node that contains the requested services. The ITAP connection is independent of whether or not there is a parallel speech connection. ITAP features include the following:. Service independence. ITAP is a generic protocol. No changes in the IMS software are required for service modifications and service additions.</p>
<p>This means that all software modifications needed when a service is modified or a new service is introduced are only performed in the network service node. No changes of the IMS software is necessary. Bearer independence. This includes the fact that ITAP communications do not rely on the existence of a speech connection in the bearer.</p>
<p>ITAP is optimized for a slow speed bearer. Both graphical and text based intelligent mobile stations are supported. The ITAP concept is applicable for standardization. Operator service management is uncomplex.</p>
<p>It is easy for operators to manage the introduction of new services and to update existing services. The SN may comprise computer equipment that is executing one or more software programs which are organized in a hierarchy: At a bottom layer is a USSD service provider , which is known in the art. Checking semantics of the communications. Mapping ITAP onto the bearer being used in the particular implementation e. Mapping may include segmenting an ITAP operation for transmission in two or more bearer protocol data units.</p>
<p>In this respect, a number of concepts and requirements described in GSM specifications and CCITT recommendations are useful for understanding the environment in which this illustrated embodiment is applied, and in particular, the teachings of GSM The service illustrated here is one in which a user wants to retrieve messages that are being stored by a service application For the remainder of this description, the service application will be referenced as the recipient and source of messages received from and sent to the IMS In response to receipt of this message, the IMS displays a menu on its screen step The menu is defined by an image description that is cached in the IMS The IMS includes intelligence that permits the user to use the arrow keys on the IMS to scroll among the lternatives in the displayed menu.</p>
<p>As the user continues to scroll down, more alternatives become visible to the user. In this example, the user selects a “Messages” sub-menu by pressing the “YES” key on the IMS when this alternative is marked step This causes the IMS to display a new menu indicating, in this example, that there are three voice messages and one fax message that can be retrieved. In this example, the user scrolls through these alternatives and selects the “Voice” sub-menu by pressing “YES” when this alternative is marked step This message includes a voice message list that will be stored within the IMS The voice message list includes information regarding how many new and how many old voice messages are in the list.</p>
<p>The IMS uses this information to display, in this example, a menu listing two new voice messages and one old voice message.</p>
<p>The user can scroll through these alternatives and, in this example, selects to list new voice messages by pressing the “YES” key on the IMS when this alternative is marked step Because the voice message list has already been received and stored within the IMS , the user’s selection does not cause any transaction to take place between the IMS and the service node Instead, information about the various new voice messages is displayed on the screen of the IMS The user may locally use the arrow keys to scroll through the list of new voice messages step The user selects to play a voice message by pressing the “YES” key on the IMS when information about the requested message is displayed step The user can now listen to the selected voice message.</p>
<p>The screen may also present information to confirm that the IMS is playing an audio message. It will be recognized that the sequence of events in the above example are application-dependent, and may therfore vary accordingly. However, it is useful to recognize that by implementing part of the service in the SN and another part in the IMS , much of the communication between the SN and the IMS can be reduced to a kind of “short-hand”, which makes more efficient use of the band-limited control channel In particular, this solution provides the following advantages:.</p>
<p>Better response times are achieved because there is service logic not only in the service application , but also in the IMS Local logical decisions can be mad in the IMS Local menu-handling is also performed in the IMS Communication with the network service application is only performed when network service data needs to be fetched or stored or when a network service function needs to be called.</p>
<p>Because there is service application logic in the IMS , a much better user interface can be used for the operator specific services, and the same MMI-paradigm as for all other services in the IMS can be used.</p>
<p>For example, for operator specific services, munu-handling may be performed with the same MMI- paradigm as for all other functions in the IMS Also, if the IMS has a graphical user interface, this can be utilized. Such local functions might include translating a number into a corresponding name, activating a ring sinal, or making an automatic “off-hook”. The ITAP semantic prevents the network timers from expiring.</p>
<p>This makes it possible to temporarily interrupt a service, execute anoterh service, and then resume the first service. The use of Image Descriptions means that, when the service application in the network is updated, a new set of Image Descriptions is loaded into the IMS No IMS software updating is necessary.</p>
<p>This guarantees that the service applications in the IMS and in the network are consistent if the service is updated in the network. If Image Descriptions are supported, then a new set of Image Descritions can be loaded.</p>
<p>This makes it possible to implement extended incoming call services, such as number to name translation with a network-based address database.</p>
<p>This makes it possible for the operator to dynamically manage the service data. Also, it makes it possible for the user to manage service data from a type of terminal other than an IMS , such as a normal desk telephone or a PC via internet WWW. It is even possible to use ITAP in other telephone networks, where a bearer exists. A PC, a laptop, a communicator, an organizer or any computer device connected to a mobile station when there is an interface between the mobile station and the computer device that supports USSD and control of call handling and other mobile station- specific functions.</p>
<p>This is achieved by having as much as possible of the service application logic in the IMS This is depicted in FIG. An IMS includes functions that are partitioned into three layers. A SN also includes functions that are partitioned into three layers. Each of these service application processes , has its own state machine, that is, it is not aware of the state in the other unit IMS or SN In addition there are, for each service application using ITAP, a set of application dependent operations Each one of these operations calls a certain SN service application function Note that multiple ITAP sessions could be in progress simultaneously.</p>
<p>However, whether multiple sessions could be executed in parallel or not depends on the bearer capability. Any particular embodiment of ITAP may or may not support image descriptions The following table compares an ITAP architecture with and without support for image descriptions :.</p>
<p>A preferred set of ITAP operations will now be described in greater detail. The ITAP operations are preferably divided into two main groups:. The Bind operation is invoked by the IMS It is a ROSE class 1 operation, that is, it is a synchronous operation and reports success result or failure error.</p>
<p>These situations are described in greater detail below. Itis a ROSE class. It is a. ROSE class 1 operation, that is, it is a synchronous operation and reports success result or failure error. The GetlmageDescr operation requests an image description from the SN This operation is invoked by the IMS when it needs to display an image and the corresponding image description does not exist in the cache.</p>
<p>The Alert operation is invoked by the SN It is a ROSE class 3 operation, that is, it reports failure error only. The Bind operation is invoked if the IMS has an application version that differs from that indicated in the Alert operation.</p>
<p>Regarding application-dependent ITAP operations, these should all be ROSE class 1 operations, that is, synchronous and reporting success result or failure error. These operations are used when the IMS requests that a service application function be executed in the SN The response from the requested function is received as a result of the invoked operation.</p>
<p>There are restrictions on how these operations may be specified. These restrictions are described below. If image descriptions are supported, then operation codes, invoke arguments and result arguments for each application dependent operation are specified in the image descriptions.</p>
<p>The procedure for this is:. Then the service code for this application is entered by the user. In this operation “Bind reason” is set to “init subscription”. The IMS stores the application parameters. Preferably, the name of the application should be used in the IMS MMI as the name for the main menu for this service application.</p>
<p>Alert operation , initiated by the SN Bind will be sent. An event in the SN Alert will be sent. An incoming call or call waiting indication in the IMS Because it is necessary to inform the SN about the reason for Bind, this operation contains a “Bind reason” parameter. The “Bind reason” has the following values:. Call related indications, that is, incoming call and call waiting. Incorrect application version.</p>
<p>If the SN has an application version that differs from that which is currently supported by the IMS , then:. If image descriptions are not supported, the SN changes to the application version that is supported by the IMS If image descriptions are supported, then the Bind response contains a list of image descriptions to clear from the cache.</p>
<p>The Bind result operation also includes a parameter which specifies which sub-services this subscriber may use. The IMS checks this parameter when a menu should be presented. If a menu contains an option for a service that is not included in the subscription, this option will not be displayed. This makes it possible for an operator to split a service application into a number of sub-services. Termination of an ITAP session. Regarding timeout handling by the SN , there should be an “idle” timer in the SN The initial value of the SN “idle” timer is constant.</p>
<p>When time-out is detected, the SN should locally abort the ITAP session and, if the bearer has a dialogue structure, abort the dialogue on the bearer level. A timer value should be specified for each operation sent. For application-dependent ITAP operations the timer value depends on the operation invoked. If image descriptions are supported, the timer value, for application-dependent ITAP operations, is specified in the image description.</p>
<p>Time-out is detected when no response Result, Error or Reject is received from the SN within the specified time period. When time-out is detected, the IMS should locally abort the ITAP session and, if the bearer has a dialogue structure, abort the dialogue on bearer level. In addition, the IMS should have an “idle” timer which monitors whether the user performs an action within a specified time period.</p>
<p>The initial value of the “idle” timer is constant, except for the situation when Alert has been received. In this case the timer value is specified with a parameter in the Alert operation. If an error or time-out occurs at the bearer level, all ITAP sessions carried by this bearer dialogue should be aborted. However, PER is preferred because this coding standard gives shorter operations and better performance for the IMS user. In a preferred embodiment, the maximum size of an ITAP operations should be limited to octets.</p>
<p>This limitation will also define the maximum size of an ITAP image description. The discussion will now focus on ITAP image descriptions. ITAP image descriptions are resources that define:.</p>
<p>In the image descriptions, the MMI definition is made on a rather high logical level. The actual image formatting and presentation is decided by the IMS An image description specifies objects from the following list: Lists of action items that consist of local IMS function calls, invocation of application-dependent ITAP operations “SN function calls” , conditional statements and label statements.</p>
<p>Menus with an action for each menu option. Lists of dynamic data. Terminal registers for temporary storage of dynamic data. An exemplary image description for a menu of options is depicted in FIG. From the image description , it is possible to call local IMS functions and remote SN functions When a function is called, the input and output parameters are stored in temporary registers. The remote SN functions are called through the set of application dependent ITAP operations that is available for the current application.</p>
<p>The IMS functions are divided into the following groups:. Functions for manipulating image description objects, such as image descriptions, registers and parameter lists. Call related functions, such as “Accept incoming call” and “Set up call”. Functions for accessing local IMS software objects, such as the telephone book,. Functions for accessing local IMS hardware objects, such as the tone generator.</p>
<p>Functions for handling SMS. A list of local IMS functions, with input and output parameters, is described later in this description. Additionally, the following SN requirements should be satisfied when image descriptions are supported:. The IMS should be able to leave the normal mode of operation and transition to a mode where the user application mainly is controlled by an ITAP application part.</p>
<p>Additionally, the following IMS requirements should be satisfied when image descriptions are supported:. Memory for dynamic storing of image descriptions and temporary data should be available in the IMS Image descriptions should stay resident in memory when the power has been switched off. The memory size required for storing image descriptions depends on the number of images used for the services and the complexity of the services.</p>
<p>It is estimated that in most cases, an image description will not be bigger than bytes. One feature with the ITAP concept is that dynamic loading of image descriptions is possible.</p>
<p>The scenario when an operator updates a service is:. The new service application version is installed in the SN When contact is established the first time after the version has been updated in the SN , the SN detects that the IMS has an old version. When the services are executed, the IMS uses the. If image descriptions are supported, then the ITAP concept places the following requirements on the operator: SN service application logic modifications and image description updates must be coordinated.</p>
<p>A management tool for creating and managing image descriptions has to be created. Each string has a USSD specific header , and a bearer independent part , The following text explains the different fields of the USSD strings:.</p>
<p>The specification for GSM An exemplary encoding is as follows:. This field, which designates the ITAP session identity, is found in all operations.</p>
<p>Seg Flag all operations : This field, which designates segmentation information, is found in all operations. The values of this flag are:. Decoding of a received ITAP operation should not be performed until the complete operation has been received.</p>
<p>Operation scenario diagrams are presented later which describe the segmentation. In all other cases the field “ITAP operation” , is empty. Dante is a free implementation of the proxy protocols socks version 4, socks version 5 rfc and msproxy. It can be used as a firewall between networks. Commercial support is available. Dasher is a computer accessibility tool which enables users to write without using a keyboard, by entering text on a screen using a pointing device such as a mouse, a touchpad, a touch screen, a roller ball, a joystick, a Push-button, a Wii Remote, or even mice operated by the foot or head.</p>
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<p>Dbopen is the library interface to database files. The supported file formats are btree, hashed and UNIX file oriented. The btree format is a representation of a sorted, balanced tree structure. The hashed format is an extensible, dynamic hashing scheme.</p>
<p>The flat-file format is a byte stream file with fixed or variable length records. The formats and file format specific information are described in detail in their respective manual pages btree 3 , hash 3 and recno 3.</p>
<p>This package contains the libraries for building programs which use the Berkeley DB in Java. Userspace service that provides access to the webOS database. Access to the database APIs is provided over the luna-service bus. Desktop Bus is a simple inter-process communication IPC system for software applications to communicate with one another.</p>
<p>D-Bus add-on library to integrate the standard D-Bus library with the GLib thread abstraction and main loop. It was originally written by Paul Burry and is now maintained by developers for ddclient on sourceforge. It has the capability to update more than just dyndns and it can fetch your WAN-ipaddress in a few different ways.</p>
<p>Check the configuration pages to find how to do this. Framework for running test suites on software tools. DejaGnu is a framework for testing other programs. Its purpose is to provide a single front end for all tests. DejaGnu provides a layer of abstraction which allows you to write tests that are portable to any host or target where a program must be tested.</p>
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<p>If you use gtk-doc with your project, you can use Devhelp to browse the documentation. In the Linux kernel, the device-mapper serves as a generic framework to map one block device onto another. Device-mapper works by processing data passed in from a virtual block device, that it itself provides, and then passing the resultant data on to another block device. An interface for interacting with and collecting measurements from a variety of devices such as mobile phones, tablets and development boards running a Linux-based operating system.</p>
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<p>Displays user-friendly dialog boxes from shell scripts This application provides a method of displaying several different types of dialog boxes from shell scripts. This allows a developer of a script to interact with the user in a much friendlier manner. It was developed by Felix von Leitner with the goal to compile and link programs to the smallest possible size.</p>
<p>It is mainly used in embedded devices. The diff command compares files line by line. Diffstat reads theoutput of the diff command and displays a histogram of the insertions, deletions, and modifications in each file.</p>
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<p>You also need to install diffutils. Diffutils includes four utilities: diff, cmp, diff3 and sdiff. Diff3 can be used when two people have made independent changes to a common original; diff3 can produce a merged file that contains both persons’ changes and warnings about conflicts. Install diffutils if you need to compare text files. The photos are organized in albums which can be sorted chronologically, by folder layout or by custom collections.</p>
<p>You tag your images which can be spread out across multiple folders, and digiKam provides fast and intuitive ways to browse these tagged images. You can also add comments to your images. These plugins add new image treatment options like color management, filters, or special effects.</p>
<p>DirectFB is a thin library that provides hardware graphics acceleration, input device handling and abstraction, integrated windowing system with support for translucent windows and multiple display layers, not only on top of the Linux Framebuffer Device. It is a complete hardware abstraction layer with software fallbacks for every graphics operation that is not supported by the underlying hardware.</p>
<p>DirectFB adds graphical power to embedded systems and sets a new standard for graphics under Linux. The ‘rules’ for this is defined in RFC DirMngr is either invoked internally by gpgsm or when running as a system daemon through the dirmngr-client tool. The distcache architecture provides a protocol and set of accompanying tools to allow applications, and indeed machines, to share session state between them by way of a network service.</p>
<p>A distributed lock manager DLM provides distributed software applications with a means to synchronize their accesses to shared resources. DLMs have been used as the foundation for several successful clustered file systems, in which the machines in a cluster can use each other’s storage via a unified file system, with significant advantages for performance and availability.</p>
<p>The main performance benefit comes from solving the problem of disk cache coherency between participating computers. The DLM is used not only for file locking but also for coordination of all disk access. Desktop Management Interface DMI Standards generate a standard framework for managing and tracking components in a desktop pc, notebook or server. DMI was the first desktop management standard. This information typically includes system manufacturer, model name, serial number, BIOS version, asset tag as well as a lot of other details of varying level of interest and reliability depending on the manufacturer.</p>
<p>This will often include usage status for the CPU sockets, expansion slots e. See option -l for supported metadata formats. RaidSetName starts with the format name see -l option which can be used to access all RAID sets of a specific format easily with certain options. It does package management using RPM, libsolv and hawkey libraries. Core Plugins for DNF. This package enhance DNF with builddep, config-manager, copr, debuginfo-install, download, needs-restarting, repoquery and reposync commands.</p>
<p>It can be used for queries, zone transfers, and dynamic updates. It includes a cache which can be used by clients, and a minimal implementation of a server. It can serve the names of local machines which are not in the global DNS. There’s also a utility to compare two SGML files and only display the differences in markup.</p>
<p>This is useful for comparing documents prepared for different languages. Dockutils is a collection of scripts providing an infrastructure to easily trigger actions on docking requests for different laptops. It is a full-featured system, and has been hardened by real-world deployments. It supports all aspects of certificate lifecycle management, including key archival, OCSP and smartcard management, and much more.</p>
<p>The Dogtag Certificate System can be downloaded for free and set up in less than an hour. Is a GUI test tool and automation framework written in Python. It uses Accessibility a11y technologies to communicate with desktop applications.</p>
<p>NET is a fast, lightweight and modular open-source platform, created by Microsoft, for creating cross platform applications. NET Core is a cross-platform. This repo aggregates the. NET Toolchain, the. NET Core runtime, the templates, and the. It produces zip, tarballs, and native packages for various supported platforms. This repo contains the code to build the. NET runtime, libraries and shared host dotnet installers for all supported platforms, as well as the sources to.</p>
<p>NET runtime and libraries. This repo contains core functionality needed to create. This repository is the home for the.</p>
<p>It contains the brains for dotnet new. When dotnet new is invoked, it will call the Template Engine to create the artifacts on disk.</p>
<p>Dovecot is an excellent choice for both small and large installations. It’s fast, simple to set up, requires no special administration and it uses very little memory. The Data Plane Development Kit is a set of libraries and drivers for fast packet processing in user space.</p>
<p>Dynamic Probes is a linux debugger that can be used to insert software probes dynamically into executing code modules. When a probe is fired, a user-written probe-handler is executed. Instructions are provided to enable the probe-handler to access all the hardware registers, system data structures and memory. DProbes operates under the most extreme software conditions such as debugging a deep rooted operating system problem in a live environment, for example in the page-manager of the kernel or perhaps a problem that will not re-create easily in either a lab or production environment.</p>
<p>For such inaccessible problem scenarios Dynamic Probes not only offers a technique for gathering diagnostic information but has a high probability of successful outcome without the need to build custom modules for debugging purposes. This is done by mirroring a whole block device via an assigned network.</p>
<p>DRBD can be understood as network based raid It’s a SUSE subpackage of drbd. Now part of drbd. Metrics provides a powerful toolkit of ways to measure the behavior of critical components in your production environment.</p>
<p>It includes various counters in separate plugins and allows you to select and view all of your system resources instantly; you can, for example, compare disk usage in combination with interrupts from your IDE controller, or compare the network bandwidth numbers directly with the disk throughput in the same interval. Dump examines files on an ext2 filesystem and determines which files need to be backed up.</p>
<p>These files are copied to the given disk, tape or other storage medium for safe keeping see the -f option below for doing remote backups. A dump that is larger than the output medium is broken into multiple volumes. On most media the size is determined by writing until an end-of-media indication is returned.</p>
<p>The package itself requires another program which is used to create ISO images on the fly. This is provided by mkisofs from the cdrtools package or genisoimage from the cdrkit package.</p>
<p>Link, or Lynx. The DV data is stored in one or several files and can later be processed by video editing soft-ware. The API also permits changing or removing subroutine calls from the application program. Run-time code changes are useful to support a variety of applications including debugging, performance monitoring, and to support composing applications out of existing packages. The goal of this API is to provide a machine independent interface to permit the creation of tools and applications that use run-time code patching.</p>
<p>The EXT2 file system utilities and libraries. It’s the main filesystem type used for hard disks on Debian and other Linux systems. These utilities access a filesystem directly using the ext2fs library. The ebtables program is a filtering tool for a Linux-based bridging firewall. It enables transparent filtering of network traffic passing through a Linux bridge.</p>
<p>It was designed to be highly flexible, with nearly all classes and all of their settings dynamically determined at runtime by a user-provided parameter file.</p>
<p>All structures in the system are arranged to be easily modifiable. Even so, the system was designed with an eye toward efficiency. The software has nothing to do with its initials’ namesake, Evolutionary Computation Journal. Writing scalable server applications in the Java programming language has always been difficult. This project is part of Jakarta EE 8. Jersey also exposes numerous extension SPIs so that developers may extend Jersey to best suit their needs.</p>
<p>Jetty is a lightweight highly scalable java based web server and servlet engine. Jetty is a modern fully async web server that has a long history as a component oriented technology easily embedded into applications while still offering a solid traditional distribution for webapp deployment. Leshan provides libraries that help developers build their own Lightweight M2M clients and servers. Mosquitto is lightweight and is suitable for use on all devices from low power single board computers to full servers.</p>
<p>It also provides some helper functions to make publishing one-off messages to an MQTT server very straightforwardly. Eclipse SDK 4. This new release makes it easier for developers to develop and assemble applications and tools based on the Eclipse platform.</p>
<p>TThe 4. We expect Eclipse end users will adopt a future release of Eclipse 4. It is used to create, display, modify and otherwise manipulate text files.</p>
<p>If invoked with a file argument, then a copy of file is read into the editor’s buffer. Changes are made to this copy and not directly to file itself. The software allows users to send and receive faxes using a computer, fax modem, and telephone line. It is command-line-based, but there are several graphical user interfaces available. This application can create and destroy boot entries, change the boot order, change the next running boot option, and more.</p>
<p>Ehcache is an open source, standards-based cache that boosts performance, offloads your database, and simplifies scalability. It’s the most widely-used Java-based cache because it’s robust, proven, full-featured, and integrates with other popular libraries and frameworks. This PKCS11 library can be used for cryptographic operations with the Belgian electronic identity card.</p>
<p>For example, you could use it to authenticate yourself for example, on a Web site or for signing electronic documents with a legally binding signature. The device corresponding to is ejected. By default eject tries all four methods in order until it succeeds. If the device is currently mounted, it is unmounted before ejecting. Electric Fence efence stops your program on the exact instruction that overruns or underruns a malloc memory buffer.</p>
<p>GDB will then display the source-code line that causes the bug. It works by using the virtual-memory hardware to create a red-zone at the border of each buffer – touch that, and your program stops. Catch all of those formerly impossible-to-catch overrun bugs that have been bothering you for years.</p>
<p>ELinks can render both frames and tables, is highly customizable and can be extended via Lua or Guile scripts. It is quite portable and runs on a variety of platforms. Check the about page for a more complete description. The emacs text editor, and advanced and sophisticated text editor.</p>
<p>Emacs may seem rich or bloated, depending on your point of view. There are likely 3 versions of emacs installed on your system: 1 text-only: type emacs in a text not X-windows terminal; 2 graphical-mode: type emacs in an X-windows terminal fairly usable even for a newbie if you take some time to learn it ; and 3 X-windows mode: type xemacs in an X-windows terminal.</p>
<p>Emacs comes with a built-in tutorial. Exit emacs with Ctrl-C. Emacspeak is a speech interface that allows visually impaired users to interact independently and efficiently with the computer. By seamlessly blending all aspects of the Internet such as Web-surfing and messaging, Emacspeak speech-enables local and remote information via a consistent and well-integrated user interface.</p>
<p>Available free of cost on the Internet, Emacspeak has dramatically changed how the author and hundreds of blind and visually impaired users around the world interact with the personal computer and the Internet. A rich suite of task-oriented tools provides efficient speech-enabled access to the audio desktop and evolving semantic WWW.</p>
<p>GNU enscript is a free replacement for Adobe’s Enscript program. Enscript can be extended to handle different output media and includes many options for customizing printouts. It can deal with large images, and zoom and scroll with constant memory usage. The goal is a standard graphics viewer for future releases of Gnome. Error Prone is a static analysis tool for Java that catches common programming mistakes at compile-time. ESounD, the Enlightened Sound Daemon, is a server process that mixes several audio streams for playback by a single audio device.</p>
<p>For example, if you are listening to music on a CD and you receive asound-related event from ICQ, the two applications will not have to queue for the use of your sound card. Install esound if you would like to let sound applications share your audio device. You will also need to install the audiofile package. A sniffer is a tool used to capture packets off the wire. Ethereal decodes numerous protocols too many to list. This utility allows querying and changing of ethernet card settings, such as speed, port, auto-negotiation, and PCI locations.</p>
<p>Evince is a document viewer for multiple document formats. It currently supports pdf, postscript, djvu, tiff and dvi. The goal of evince is to replace the multiple document viewers that exist on the GNOME Desktop with a single simple application. It represents a new approach to logical volume management for Linux. The architecture introduces a plug-in model that allows for easy expansion and customization of various levels of volume management.</p>
<p>EVMS provides a single, unified system for handling all of your storage management tasks. EVMS recognizes all of the disks on your system and allows for a variety of partitioning schemes.</p>
<p>Filesystems can be created and checked, and are automatically updated when changes are made to the underlying volumes. With EVMS, there is no longer a need for several individual utilities for performing each of these tasks.</p>
<p>This program is a graphical groupware suite; a single application with email, calendar, address book, and task-list tools to help you collaborate with other people. This man page is not the central source of help for Evolution. You can find the user’s guide by running the application and selecting items from the Help menu. For help with additional command-line options, type evolution –help at the command line.</p>
<p>The Evolution Data Server provides a single database for common, desktop-wide information, such as a user’s address book or calendar events. It is also a dependency of the clock applet from the gnome-applets package, 2. Evolution Webcal 1. The calendars will automatically appear in Evolution 1. This project aims to provide a full-featured exFAT file system implementation for Unix-like systems. It consists of a FUSE module fuse-exfat and a set of utilities exfat-utils.</p>
<p>Exim is a mail transfer agent MTA used on Unix-like operating systems. Exim is free software distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public Licence, and it aims to be a general and flexible mailer with extensive facilities for checking incoming e-mail. The arguments to xmlwf are one or more files which are each to be checked for XML well-formedness. Expect is a tcl extension for automating interactive applications suchas telnet, ftp, passwd, fsck, rlogin, tip, etc.</p>
<p>Expect is also useful for testing the named applications. Expect makes it easy for a scriptto control another program and interact with it. Install the expect package if you’d like to develop scripts which interactwith interactive applications.</p>
<p>You’ll also need to install the tcl package. There are several advanced photo management programs that you can use to collect, organize, enjoy, and share all those pictures you have been taking with your digital camera.</p>
<p>Which one is the best for you may depend on which version of Linux or which desktop environment you are using.</p>
<p>If you connect your digital camera through a USB connection, F-Spot can detect it and offers to import the pictures. You can than categorize them, edit them, run them in a slide show, or use any of the other functions. As an alternative Google offers Picasa, also a program for comprehensively locating and organizing images on a computer system. It is not a native Linux application, but uses Wine when it runs on Linux. Hyperledger Fabric delivers a uniquely elastic and extensible architecture, distinguishing it from alternative blockchain solutions.</p>
<p>Planning for the future of enterprise blockchain requires building on top of a fully-vetted, open source architecture; Hyperledger Fabric is your starting point. This project enables one to use the Hyperledger Fabric permissioned blockchain platform to interact with Ethereum smart contracts written in an EVM compatible language such as Solidity or Vyper. This enables development of using Java language or other JVM based languages.</p>
<p>A chaincode app developer may express the interface to their application in a highlevel interface definition language, and chaintool will generate 1 chaincode stubs and 2 package the chaincode for convenient deployment. A fast java serialization drop in-replacement and some serialization based utils such as Structs and OffHeap Memory. Fastjson can work with arbitrary Java objects including pre-existing objects that you do not have source-code of. Framebuffer device maintenance program. Provides a set of functions that implement several popular forward error correction FEC algorithms and several low-level routines useful in modems implemented with digital signal processing DSP.</p>
<p>The server includes the LDAP Lightweight Directory Access Protocol , which allows standardized access to directory information, such as network addresses, user IDs with access and authentication data. Red Hat bought this software from AOL last year as part of a Speech synthesis system Festival is a general multi-lingual speech synthesis system.</p>
<p>It offers a full text to speech system with various APIs, as well an environment for development and research of speech synthesis techniques. It includes a Scheme-based command interpreter. Besides research into speech synthesis, festival is useful as a stand-alone speech synthesis program. It is capable of producing clearly understandable speech from text. The fetchmailconf package includes an interactive GUI configurator suitable for end-users.</p>
<p>SSL is provided by the fetchmail-ssl package. Johnson at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. File tests each argument in an attempt to classify it. There are three sets of tests, performed in this order: filesystem tests, magic number tests, and language tests. The first test that succeeds causes the file type to be printed. This means that you can : create and modify archives; view the content of an archive; view afile contained in the archive; extract files from the archive.</p>
<p>File Roller is only a front-end a graphical interface to archiving programs like tar and zip. The supported file types are : Tar archives uncompressed. A file system often also written as filesystem is a method of storing and organizing computer files and their data.</p>
<p>Essentially, it organizes these files into a database for the storage, organization, manipulation, and retrieval by the computer’s operating system. File systems are used on data storage devices such as hard disks or CD-ROMs to maintain the physical location of the files. Beyond this, they might provide access to data on a file server by acting as clients for a network protocol e. It is distinguished from a directory service and registry. A variable is defined by an entity composed of a preceding comment, a variable name, an assignment delimiter, and a related variable value.</p>
<p>A variable is determined by its variable name. Each filter is capable of converting from one or more input formats to another format that can either be printed directly or piped into another filter to get it to a printable format.</p>
<p>Filters must be capable of reading from a filename on the command-line or from the standard input, copying the standard input to a temporary file as required by the file format. All output must be sent to the standard output.</p>
<p>The command name argv[0] is set to the name of the destination printer. Utilities for finding files–find, xargs, and locate These utilities find files meeting specified criteria and perform various actions on the files which are found.</p>
<p>Login time is displayed as month, day, hours and minutes, unless more than six months ago, in which case the year is displayed rather than the hours and minutes. It also has a mode known as reconfig mode to let you reconfigure user settings that were originally set in the installer. This is generally useful to IHVs shipping hardware to an end user so that the end user can do things such as select their language, set their root password and configure their network.</p>
<p>This allows firstboot to be a framework that requires no knowledge of the underlying modules. The primary benefit of this is that additional steps can be added without having to modify firstboot itself. The Modules page describes how to create a firstboot module. Flannel is an etcd driven address management agent. Most commonly it is used to manage the ip addresses of overlay networks between systems running containers that need to communicate with one another.</p>
<p>The flex program generates scanners. Scanners are programs which can recognize lexical patterns in text.</p>
<p>Flex takes pairs of regular expressions and C code as input and generates a C source file as output. The output file is compiled and linked with a library to produce an executable. The executable searches through its input for occurrences of the regular expressions. When a match is found, it executes the corresponding C code. Flex was designed to work with both Yacc and Bison, and is used by many programs as part of their build process. Flutter is Google’s SDK for crafting beautiful, fast user experiences for mobile, web, and desktop from a single codebase.</p>
<p>Flutter works with existing code, is used by developers and organizations around the world, and is free and open source. Highly configurable and low resource X11 Window manager Fairly similar to blackbox, from which it is derived, but has been extended with features such as pwm-style window tabs, configurable key bindings, toolbar, and an iconbar.</p>
<p>It also includes some cosmetic fixes over blackbox. This package contains support for Gnome and KDE. Fontconfig is written and was originally maintained by Keith Packard. Its current maintainer is Behdad Esfahbod. Foomatic is a comprehensive, spooler-independent database of printers, printer drivers, and driver descriptions. There is also the possibility to read the PJL options out of PJL-capable laser printers and take them into account at the driver description file generation.</p>
<p>Foomatic is a database-driven system for integrating free software printer drivers with common spoolers under Unix. Olszta Stable release 2. GLUT and hence freeglut allows the user to create and manage windows containing OpenGL contexts on a wide range of platforms and also read the mouse, keyboard and joystick functions. The solution provides features for further integration with Linux based clients SUDO, automount and integration with Active Directory based infrastructures Trusts.</p>
<p>The IPMI specification defines a set of interfaces for platform management and is implemented by a number vendors for system management. The FreeIPMI tools and libraries listed below should provide users with the ability to access and utilize these and many other features. Wnn’ is pronounced ‘un-nu’. FreeWnn is a client-server type Kana pronounciation – Kanji in Japanese translation system. Some of the file may distribute separately under more loose license.</p>
<p>See each file for details. The goal of the frysk project is to create an intelligent, distributed, always-on system monitoring and debugging tool that allows developers and system administrators to monitor running processes and threads including creation and destruction events , monitor the use of locking primitives, expose deadlocks, gather data and debug any given process by either choosing it from a list or by accepting frysk’s offer to open a source code or other window on a process that is in the process of crashing or that has been misbehaving in certain user-definable ways.</p>
<p>Ftp is the user interface to the Internet standard File Transfer Protocol. The program allows a user to transfer files to and from a remote network site. Old version of the F? It is no longer supported upstream, having been replaced by FVWM 2, and so no non-Debian-related bugs will be fixed unless someone else provides a patch.</p>
<p>You probably only want to use this package instead of the fvwm package if you know what you are doing or have very specific requirements. FVWM is a fairly small window manager which provides a three-dimensional appearance and a virtual desktop, complete with colour icons. You will need to install the fvwm-common package if you want the xpmroot command and some icons, along with manual pages for the modules. These utilities convert graphics files from the G3 format into the general- purpose PBM format and back, so you can print or manipulate them.</p>
<p>G3 is used by fax modems and machines. Editors : Jia Zhou, Gavriel Salvendy. Publisher : Springer Cham. Series ISSN : Edition Number : 1. Number of Pages : XXI, Skip to main content. Search SpringerLink Search. Editors: Jia Zhou 0 , Gavriel Salvendy 1. View editor publications. Conference proceedings info: ITAP Buying options eBook EUR</p>❿

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You’ll also need to install the tcl package. In response to the received indication, the intelligent terminal prompts the user that the application is ready step and then waits for action step❿

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